Adrenaline + Lidocaine Hydrochloride
Adrenaline + Lidocaine Hydrochloride is used for: Local anesthesia, regional anesthesia, nerve blocks, epidural and caudal anaesthesia
Adult: Per ml prep contains lidocaine HCl 20 mg and epinephrine 5 mcg. Dosage depends on several factors such as route, type and extent of surgical procedure, duration of anaesthesia and patient's condition and age. Max dose of lidocaine given with epinephrine: 7 mg/kg and not >500 mg.
Child: 3 mth-12 yr: Per ml prep contains lidocaine HCl 20 mg and epinephrine 5 mcg. Dosage depends on several factors such as route, type and extent of surgical procedure, duration of anaesthesia and patient's condition and age. Max dose 3 mg/kg. Ideal body weight should be used in children with high body weight.
Reconstitution: Can be diluted if necessary in glucose 5%, sodium chloride 0.9% and lactated Ringer's solution.
Tachycardia, hypertension, cerebral arteriosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, IV admin, anaesthetise digits or appendages, myasthenia gravis.
Epilepsy, impaired cardiac conduction, CHF, DM, closed angle glaucoma, impaired liver function (if site of admin is likely to result in high blood levels), severe renal dysfunction. Local anaesthetic effect may be reduced if injected into an inflamed or infected area. Cerebrovascular insufficiency, hyperthyroidism. Neonates, elderly, patients in poor general condition (optimise patient's condition before major block), pregnancy.
Pregnancy Epinephrine crosses the placenta During pregnancy, anaphylaxis can be catastrophic and can lead to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and permanent central nervous system damage or death in the mother and, more commonly, in the fetus or neonate; the prevalence of anaphylaxis occurring during pregnancy is reported to be approximately 3 cases per 100,000 deliveries; epinephrine is first-line medication of choice for treatment of anaphylaxis during pregnancy in humans; epinephrine should be used for treatment of anaphylaxis during pregnancy in same manner as it is used in non-pregnant patients Administration of epinephrine used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus (fetal anoxia, spontaneous abortion, or both) Epinephrine is teratogenic in rabbits, mice, and hamsters dosed during organogenesis Use with caution during labor and delivery; although epinephrine improves maternal hypotension associated with anaphylaxis, it may result in uterine vasoconstriction, decreased uterine blood flow, and fetal anoxia Avoid epinephrine during second stage of labor; in dosage sufficient to reduce uterine contractions, the drug may cause a prolonged period of uterine atony with hemorrhage; avoid epinephrine in obstetrics when maternal blood pressure exceeds 130/80 mmHg Lactation There is no information on presence of epinephrine in human milk, effects on breastfed infants, or on milk production; epinephrine is first line-medication of choice for treatment of anaphylaxis; it should be used in same manner in breastfeeding and non- breastfeeding patients Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when epinephrine is administered to a nursing woman
Halogenated inhalation anaesthetics; alpha- or beta-blocking agents; methyldopa, guanethidine; drugs with vasoconstrictor and pressor effects; antihypertensives; adrenergic neuron blockers; potassium-depleting drugs; cardiac glycosides; ephedra, yohimbe. TCAs may induce hypertension and arrhythmia.
Side effects of Adrenaline + Lidocaine Hydrochloride : Severity of adverse effects in CNS and CVS are directly related to blood levels of lidocaine; the effects are more likely to occur after systemic administration rather than infiltration; dizziness; muscle twitching; local anaesthetic of mouth/throat impairs swallowing and increases the risk of aspiration (patients cautioned against eating or drinking for 3-4 hr after anaesthesia); transient effect on auditory system of neonate; erythema; pigmentation; pain; headache; palpitations; local necrosis; pulmonary oedema; hyperglycaemia; bradycardia; reduced cardiac output; anxiety. Epidural may cause hypotension, bradycardia, nausea and vomiting. Intraoral inj may cause stress reactions such as diaphoresis, palpitation, hyperventilation, generalised pallor and faintness. Topically: papules, burns, rash, skin irritation, burning sensation and blanching. Potentially Fatal: Severity of adverse effects in CNS and CVS related to blood levels of lidocaine; effects more likely to occur after systemic administration rather than infiltration. CNS toxicity (due to inadvertent IV admin), medullary depression with tonic & clonic convulsions; ventricular fibrillation; severe hypertension with cerebral haemorrhage and pulmonary oedema; unconsciousness; possibly respiratory arrest. Allergic reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and possibly life threatening asthmatic episodes in susceptible patients may occur due to sodium metabisulphate constituent. Central nerve blocks may cause CV depression (especially in hypovolaemia). Retrobulbar inj may reach subarachnoid space causing CV collapse, apnoea, convulsions, temporary blindness. Paracervical block may cause foetal bradycardia/tachycardia (careful monitoring of foetal heart rate is necessary).
Mechanism of Action
Lidocaine is a local anaesthetic which decreases permeability of sodium ions, blocking induction and conduction of nerve impulses. Combination with epinephrine restricts systemic spread of lidocaine, vascular absorption and its duration of local anaesthetic effect.